Anthropogenic degradation of piedmont forests in Azerbaijan and the prerequisites for their improvement
Aliev ZH, BH Aliyev
Institute of soil science and agrochemistry of NAS of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan
Correspondence: Aliev ZH, Institute of soil science and agrochemistry of NAS of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Email email@example.com
forests, water resources, soil, rivers, mountains, ecology, degradation
Ecology of mountain forests
Forest cover of the country the world's forest cover (18.5 Russian Federation, Canada) 0.9%, Brazil -11,8) 0.03% of the total. Geographic and environmental factors biosphere was a part of the forest plays an important role in nature like. Forests protect soil and water resources, soil erosion by preventing the water from the watering, who declared them clean and quiet rivers, fountains, water reserves fills by siltation river water pollution and protect it from adjusting it reduces or prevents flood events. Compared with other countries, our republic has little woody plants higher than 11.4% of the area is covered by forest.
Along with all this, it should be noted that, at present, 261 hectares of forest, the army, and they are under the control of our territory was occupied by Armenian aggressors. Although a small area, rich in forests of trees and shrubs. Here is the cover of more than 450 wild trees and shrubs grow. 70 of them are endemic species do not grow anywhere else republic. Despite the destruction of forests all over the world, but the church was full of agricultural crops and pastures are transformed into forests, large areas are exposed to fire.
At present, the planet wills báº deforestation process. The destruction of the forest by local, regional and global levels, climate change has a negative impact on the biodiversity of flora and fauna, cloud reduces the biosphere sustainability, flood, flood and water erosion, strong winds, causes of desertification ownership. The mountain forests of the Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus and Talysh Mountains remained. These forests are more than 90 percent of the area is covered with forests in the country. The unique features of each of these regions are in the woods.
The spread of forests and environmental factors play a major role in the formation of the mountain. It rose to a height above sea level; climate (temperature, precipitation and humidity) and soil productivity due to the change in the composition of the forests are changing. Prilipko 3 divides in the country with particular emphasis on forest zone. Lower mountain forest zone, according to the author of 500-600m above sea level, covers an area of 800-900m. Our studies have shown that low-Balakan region west of the Great Caucasus mountain forest zone begins 350 m.
High mountain forest zone from 900 m above sea level, united in 1800-1900m. Here are purely dominated by beech forests of beech and feles origin mixed. The upper mountain forest zone, more than 1,800 meters above sea level, the percentage of sub-alpine zone holds up. In many places the border of the natural climate of the forest through the artificially reduced from 1900-2100 m above the forest zone, sometimes it was destroyed.
The eastern zone of the prevailing oak tree species. In addition, birch, beech, birch, mountain livestock upper skin black, juniper bushes and so on. Can be found. Since ancient times, people have made extensive use of forest resources to meet their needs. However, the nature of those times, including the intervention of the forest's natural complexes are simple ways to change the process was going very slowly.
With increasing demand for forest resources of the people of the forest-tezniki intervention progress accelerated.
Recently, the forest resources are widely used in the majority of the national economy. Therefore, degraded forests, and the area is undergoing rapid decreases from year to year. Available survey data indicate that the area is covered with forests in the country at the beginning of the last century, 14.5% of the total area (1915) per share. (Forested percent). At present, the figure is 11%. As you can see forests in the area has decreased significantly in the short term.
At the beech forests of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Balakan region is 47.6. Balakan in forestry in 1938. According to the structure of the forest with beech forests of the higher interest rates (65.2%), in 1984, a significant decrease in forest structure and beech forests in the period accounted for 47.6% of the area covered by forest made.
Such a decrease in the forests of beech Katekh (Balakanchay river basin) during the period of intense activity of Balakan cutting plant (mainly for the production of parquet) beech forests have been cut due to the destruction. As can be seen in a short period of time for use during the Balkan forestry tree beech forests having sex has decreased by 17.6%.
Forestry beech forests dried by a sharp 26% of the area are covered by forest. The beech forests in view of the reduction of humidity have been decreased. Such a situation was little doubt the role of the relief and anthropogenic factors. Sarıbaş Kurmukchay Ilisu and villages in the basin since ancient times by the destruction of forests, fields, agriculture (both in agriculture and cattle breeding) use, beech forests, hornbeam, juniper and other trees to replace can be considered a major factor in this respect.
Recently, systematic destruction of forests and grazing under the influence of anthropogenic factors, the upper limit of the lower forests increase (200-400 m, sometimes more) has been caused. Izotermi conditions of 100 C in July in the Caucasus (Azerbaijan Republic) of forest natural (climate) should be above the upper border of the 2500-2600m. But, of course, the upper limit of the forest as a result of anthropogenic factors in the lower (1900-2100m) is dropped.
Ways to improve the mountain forests
Mountain forests under the influence of anthropogenic factors in the areas of transformation and restoration of the following actions are recommended to improve.
a) The upper limit of the forest in order to restore the forest before the 100-200m wide protective strip on the border of the above (buffer zone) to pay, there should be a ban on cattle grazing. According to the rocky slopes scoured the forest planting activities in case of an ordinary candle, juniper, less-washed hillside birch, oak, pear, Trautvetter, birch and hazelnut month shall prevail.
Alpine and sub-alpine pastures and grazing pasture violated Poor circulation system to allow the vegetation to improve cattle pasture. It is recommended for use as eroding hillside meadows in southern areas.
The upper forest belt (1800-2000m), distributed sparse oak, birch forests, cattle grazing stopped and oak seeds buried in a small soften the soil. 1700-1900m-dominated sparse in the meshes peanuts should be banned cattle grazing. Small areas land by gently a landfill must be better peanut seeds
b) Medium steep slopes of the mountain-forest zone (1200-1800m), broken down fully charged hornbeam-beech forests and illegal logging, cattle grazing should be prohibited. The average altitude of the forest areas near settlements and along the roads less prone slopes (10-12) disrupted a tenuous two-year beech groves of beech, hornbeam planting seedlings need of reclamation.
c) low mountain-forest zone teeth derivative-type semi-precious oriental hornbeam trees to restore the forest area to protect the herd, the second grade trees and shrubs should be done gradually from the ground, 1x1, 1x2 meters small spaces or tilled strips of oak seeds buried. Forestry measures should be continued in the following years.
Lower mountain forest zone (600-900meters) from the individual trees of different kinds of fruit and berry bushes and wild trees, grafting cuttings hemimezofit peacefully sib beds sib services through the forest to create gardens. Lower mountain forest zone (600-900meters) black thorn, sucker like leaves pear, barberry, Meadowsweet meadow prevailing in the Crimean pine and pine hemikserofit beds sib rebuild the plug, fruits and berries in the forest-garden set up by the prevailing service areas.
Lower mountain forest zone and the mountainous area of eroded land and lakes friqana, (400-1000 m) steppe lands or semi-deserts and pine forests forced the Crimean pine or pistachio, almond, Mountain Dagan, i sucker like leaves pear and pine forests of plug baglar create.
Doctor of the Institute of Geography of ANAS, prof. Mahmoud Khalil reference to the valuable research results have shown that the north-western slope of the Greater Caucasus mountain forest in the upper zone of Khizi region as a result of anthropogenic impacts in excess of 60 meters in the eastern forests of oak was destroyed completely. Mountain (2207meters) on the southern slope of the individual and the group now can be found in the ends of oak Narcotics.
Basin Altiaghaj people in low Khizi region known at the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Erosion and Irrigation DAC-forest zone of the lower profile bushes against the backdrop of moderately eroded ordinary pine, cream pine, chestnut leaf oak, elm, preventing soil erosion through the use of forest lands, expansion of forest areas and improve the research work carried out in the national economy, of which the results of the large-scale application in the country itself is of particular quantity.1–7
Conflict of interest
The author declares there is no conflict of interest.
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Citation: Aliev ZH, Aliyev BH. Anthropogenic degradation of piedmont forests in Azerbaijan and the prerequisites for their improvement. Author J. 2018;3(3):65‒66.